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ENGLISH STUDY MATERIAL
DAILY VOCABULARY FOR EXAMS
 
                                                                                             
 
  • LECTURE-1 : TYPES OF SENTENCES & STRUCTURES : (ACTIVE VOICE)

    Dear Students,

    I am giving you some tips to learn english very easily to read, write and understand which will help you in spotting errors, fill in th blanks, cloze test,
    etc. I hope this will  full fill your government exam preperation needs.

    First try to understand what we read during examination: Sentences

    Let's discuss about sentences

    Sentence-1 This sentence always tells or says you something to do positive. Eg. You go to market, He found his purse, He will join office tomorrow morning. etc. you read given sentences above you will realize it says or tells something positive. This type of sentences are known as Affirmative or Positive sentence in English.

    Structure of this sentence is: - SUBJECT + HELPING VERB + MAIN VERB + OBJECT
    Subject could be NOUN or PRONOUN (will discuss later)
    Helping verb we take from Tenses and Modals Chapter (will discuss later)
    Main Verb Work which is done in sentence is known as Main Verb. (Types of Main Verb: V1/ V2/ V3/ V4/ V5/ & V6
    Object on which verb takes place. It could also be NOUN or PRONOUN (will disuss later)

    Sentence-2 This sentence always tells or say you something not to do. Eg. You don't go to market, He did not find his purse, He will not join office tomorrow morning. etc. you read given sentences above you will realize it says or tells something negative. This type of sentences are known as Negative sentence in English.

    Structure of this sentence is: - SUBJECT + HELPING VERB + NOT +  MAIN VERB + OBJECT
    Subject could be NOUN or PRONOUN (will discuss later)
    Helping verb we take from Tenses and Modals Chapter (will discuss later)
    Main Verb Work which is done in sentence is known as Main Verb. (Types of Main Verb: V1/ V2/ V3/ V4/ V5/ & V6
    Object on which verb takes place. It could also be NOUN or PRONOUN (will disuss later)

    Sentence-3 This sentence always asks you something positive, You can understand this by thinking answer of this question, this sentence ends with ? mark. It's answer starts with Yes or No. Eg. Do you go to market?, Did he find his purse?, Will he join office tomorrow morning? etc. you read given sentences above you will realize it asks something and looking for answer only in Yes or No. This type of sentences are known as Interrogative sentence in English.

    Structure of this sentence is: - HELPING VERB + SUBJECT + MAIN VERB + OBJECT
    Subject could be NOUN or PRONOUN (will discuss later)
    Helping verb we take from Tenses and Modals Chapter (will discuss later)
    Main Verb Work which is done in sentence is known as Main Verb. (Types of Main Verb: V1/ V2/ V3/ V4/ V5/ & V6
    Object on which verb takes place. It could also be NOUN or PRONOUN (will disuss later)

    Sentence-4 This sentence always asks you something Negative, You can understand this by thinking answer of this question, this sentence ends with ? mark. It's answer starts with Yes or No. Eg. Do you not go to market? / Don't you go to market? , Did he not find his purse?/ Didn't he find his purse?, Will he not join office tomorrow morning? etc. you read given sentences above you will realize it asks something negative and looking for answer only in Yes or No. This type of sentences are known as Negative Interrogative sentence in English.

    Structure of this sentence is: - HELPING VERB + SUBJECT + NOT + MAIN VERB + OBJECT
    Subject could be NOUN or PRONOUN (will discuss later)
    Helping verb we take from Tenses and Modals Chapter (will discuss later)
    Main Verb Work which is done in sentence is known as Main Verb. (Types of Main Verb: V1/ V2/ V3/ V4/ V5/ & V6
    Object on which verb takes place. It could also be NOUN or PRONOUN (will disuss later)

    Sentence-5 This sentence always asks you something Positive, You can understand this by thinking answer of this question, this sentence also ends with ? mark. Answer of this question is not Yes/ No. It looks for full answer, It starts with What, When, Why, Who, Which, Where, Whose, How. Eg. Why do you go to market? , When did he find his purse?, When will he join office tomorrow morning? etc. you read given sentences above you will realize it asks something positive and looking for answer with description. This type of sentences are known as Question sentence in English.

    Structure of this sentence is: - W/H (Family) + HELPING VERB + SUBJECT +  MAIN VERB + OBJECT?
    Subject could be NOUN or PRONOUN (will discuss later)
    Helping verb we take from Tenses and Modals Chapter (will discuss later)
    Main Verb Work which is done in sentence is known as Main Verb. (Types of Main Verb: V1/ V2/ V3/ V4/ V5/ & V6
    Object on which verb takes place. It could also be NOUN or PRONOUN (will disuss later)

    Sentence-6 This sentence also starts with What, When, Why, Who, Which, Where, Whose, How but ends with ".".  It doesnot ask, It tells about something which has happened when, why, what etc. Eg. Why you go to market? , When he find his purse?, When he join office tomorrow morning? etc. you read given sentences above you will realize it doesnot ask but trying to tell. You must be very carefull during solving questions starts with W/H family either it ends with ? or . If it ends with ? use helping verb according to that else like sentence-6 rule

    Structure of this sentence is: - W/H (Family) + SUBJECT +  MAIN VERB + OBJECT.
    Subject could be NOUN or PRONOUN (will discuss later)
    Helping verb we take from Tenses and Modals Chapter (will discuss later)
    Main Verb Work which is done in sentence is known as Main Verb. (Types of Main Verb: V1/ V2/ V3/ V4/ V5/ & V6
    Object on which verb takes place. It could also be NOUN or PRONOUN (will disuss later)

    Sentence-7 This sentence always asks you something Negative, You can understand this by thinking answer of this question, this sentence also ends with ? mark. Answer of this question is not Yes/ No. It looks for full answer, It starts with What, When, Why, Who, Which, Where, Whose, How. Eg. Why do you not go to market? , When did he not find his purse?, When did he not join office? etc. you read given sentences above you will realize it asks something negative and looking for answer with description. This type of sentences are known as Question sentence in English.

    Structure of this sentence is: - W/H (Family) + HELPING VERB + SUBJECT + NOT +  MAIN VERB + OBJECT?
    Subject could be NOUN or PRONOUN (will discuss later)
    Helping verb we take from Tenses and Modals Chapter (will discuss later)
    Main Verb Work which is done in sentence is known as Main Verb. (Types of Main Verb: V1/ V2/ V3/ V4/ V5/ & V6
    Object on which verb takes place. It could also be NOUN or PRONOUN (will disuss later)

    Sentence-8 This sentence also starts with What, When, Why, Who, Which, Where, Whose, How but ends with ".".  It does not ask, It tells about something which has happened when, why, what etc but negative. Eg. Why you don't go to market? , When he did not find his purse?, When he does not join office ? etc. you read given sentences above you will realize it doesnot ask but trying to tell. You must be very carefull during solving questions starts with W/H family either it ends with ? or . If it ends with ? use helping verb according to that else like sentence-6 rule

    Structure of this sentence is: - W/H (Family) + SUBJECT + HELPING VERB + NOT +  MAIN VERB + OBJECT.
    Subject could be NOUN or PRONOUN (will discuss later)
    Helping verb we take from Tenses and Modals Chapter (will discuss later)
    Main Verb Work which is done in sentence is known as Main Verb. (Types of Main Verb: V1/ V2/ V3/ V4/ V5/ & V6
    Object on which verb takes place. It could also be NOUN or PRONOUN (will disuss later)

  • LECTURE-2 : USE OF SUBJECT, HELPING VERB AND MAIN VERBS ACCORDING TO TENSE  IN ACTIVE VOICE:

    CASE 1- SUBJECT + HELPING VERB + MAIN VERB + OBJECT
    SUBJECT = I, WE, YOU, THEY & PLURAL NOUN
    HELPING VERB = DO
    MAIN VERB MUST= VERB-1
    MEANS = SUBJECT (I,WE,YOU, THEY) + HELPING VERB (DO) + MAIN VERB (VERB-1) + OBJECT
    THIS TYPE OF STRUCTURE IS KNOWN AS PRESENT INDEFINITE.

    CASE 2- SUBJECT + HELPING VERB + MAIN VERB + OBJECT
    SUBJECT = HE, SHE, IT, SINGULAR NOUN (NAME OF A PERSON)
    HELPING VERB = DOES
    MAIN VERB MUST= VERB-1
    MEANS = SUBJECT (I,WE,YOU, THEY) + HELPING VERB (DOES) + MAIN VERB (VERB-1) + OBJECT
    THIS TYPE OF STRUCTURE IS ALSO KNOWN AS PRESENT INDEFINITE.

    CASE 3- SUBJECT + HELPING VERB + MAIN VERB + OBJECT
    SUBJECT = I
    HELPING VERB = AM
    MAIN VERB MUST= VERB-4 (V1+ING)
    MEANS = SUBJECT (I) + HELPING VERB (AM) + MAIN VERB (VERB-4) + OBJECT
    THIS TYPE OF STRUCTURE IS KNOWN AS PRESENT CONTINOUS.

    CASE 4- SUBJECT + HELPING VERB + MAIN VERB + OBJECT
    SUBJECT = WE, YOU, THEY & PLURAL NOUN
    HELPING VERB = ARE
    MAIN VERB MUST= VERB-4 (V1+ING)
    MEANS = SUBJECT (WE, YOU, THEY & PLURAL NOUN) + HELPING VERB (ARE) + MAIN VERB (VERB-4) + OBJECT
    THIS TYPE OF STRUCTURE IS KNOWN AS PRESENT CONTINOUS.

    CASE 5- SUBJECT + HELPING VERB + MAIN VERB + OBJECT
    SUBJECT = HE, SHE, IT & SINGULAR NOUN
    HELPING VERB = IS
    MAIN VERB MUST= VERB-4 (V1+ING)
    MEANS = SUBJECT (HE, SHE, IT & SINGULAR NOUN) + HELPING VERB (IS) + MAIN VERB (VERB-4) + OBJECT
    THIS TYPE OF STRUCTURE IS KNOWN AS PRESENT CONTINOUS.

    CASE 6- SUBJECT + HELPING VERB + MAIN VERB + OBJECT
    SUBJECT = I, WE, YOU, THEY, PLURAL NOUN
    HELPING VERB = HAVE
    MAIN VERB MUST= VERB-3
    MEANS = SUBJECT (I, WE, YOU, THEY, PLURAL NOUN) + HELPING VERB (HAVE) + MAIN VERB (VERB-3) + OBJECT
    THIS TYPE OF STRUCTURE IS KNOWN AS PRESENT PERFECT.

    CASE 7- SUBJECT + HELPING VERB + MAIN VERB + OBJECT
    SUBJECT = HE, SHE, IT, SINGULAR NOUN
    HELPING VERB = HAS
    MAIN VERB MUST= VERB-3
    MEANS = SUBJECT (HE, SHE, IT, SINGULAR NOUN) + HELPING VERB (HAS) + MAIN VERB (VERB-3) + OBJECT
    THIS TYPE OF STRUCTURE IS KNOWN AS PRESENT PERFECT.

    CASE 8- SUBJECT + HELPING VERB + MAIN VERB + OBJECT
    SUBJECT = HE, SHE, IT, SINGULAR NOUN
    HELPING VERB = HAS
    MAIN VERB MUST= VERB-3
    MEANS = SUBJECT (HE, SHE, IT, SINGULAR NOUN) + HELPING VERB (HAS) + MAIN VERB (VERB-3) + OBJECT
    THIS TYPE OF STRUCTURE IS KNOWN AS PRESENT PERFECT.

 
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